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This new gonostyli is actually emphasized inside the reddish, and will getting explicitly noticed in newly mated queens

This new gonostyli is actually emphasized inside the reddish, and will getting explicitly noticed in newly mated queens

Female genitalia out-of Yards. fasciculata and you can steps to have mating plug coupling. (A) Virgin women genitalia in front have a look at. (B) Men genitalia from pre-copula men, approaching the feminine genitalia. (C–E) Vaginal capsule, metasomal sterna S-VIII and S-IX. (F) Men genitalia creating the new coupling of your connect: ventral view of vaginal tablet and you may metasomal sternum S-IX projecting out of the human anatomy of your male of the an excellent telescopic direction. (G) Male vaginal tablet isolated out of male’s body, that have penis regulators caused, gonostyli against the opposite reputation with regards to the initial. (H) Metasomal sterna S-VIII and you can S-IX, where sternum S-IX takes on its completely new standing in male’s gut. (I) Mating connect in detail, demonstrating the lateral compression regarding gonocoxites. (J) The newest vaginal chamber regarding an effective connected ladies: new membranous part which has had the fresh new mating connect affixed.

On non-Melipona varieties (F

longipes, S. aff. Postica, and you can P. minima), we seen strong knob regulators that have mediator curvature and you will a reduced spatha ( Shape step one)paring all round morphology of cock valves and you may spatha regarding Meters. fasciculata to another analyzed kinds, we discovered that one another Yards. flavolineata and you will M. seminigra keeps slim penis regulators with reduced curve. Yet not, M. seminigra keeps smaller valves than just Yards. flavolineata, and you may an established spatha in comparison with another Melipona ( Figure step 1).

Breakdown off hypothesized plugging procedures

The very last position off mating plugs in to the mated women matched up the brand new reputation of your own male’s instinct during the copulation on account of “J” path and you will location significantly less than woman’s instinct ( Contour 4C). In most physogastric queens regarding M. fasciculata, we seen the latest mating plug attached to the membranous vaginal pockets because of the penis regulators, for the spatha body based towards the feminine ventral section, placed directly under new gonopore ( Profile 3J). I suggest that the latest mating plug procedure is brought about if male vaginal product is actually irreversibly protruded from male’s looks, which results in changed ranks of your gonostyli, knob valves, and gonocoxites.

The fresh new mating group of M. fasciculata, considering a video record away from mating regarding an associated varieties. Throughout: (A) male in-flight, trying to updates by itself across the women; (B) arranged men, demonstrating sets out of ft installing along side female’s muscles; (C) male improving the abdomen of females; (D) men making the female after effective mating, that is, the brand new mating plug accessory. In most parts, men wings is depicted to represent its movement during the mating, centered on Additional Video clips S1 .

New mating group of Meters. fasciculata, according to a video list regarding mating regarding a connected types. Throughout: (A) men in flight, trying to standing by itself over the girls; (B) arranged male, demonstrating pairs out of ft fitting over the female’s system; (C) men improving the abdomen of one’s girls; (D) male leaving the feminine immediately following profitable mating, that’s, brand new mating connect attachment. Throughout pieces, male wings is actually illustrated in order to depict the way while in the mating, centered on Second Films S1 .

Based on the research ranging from sleeping condition of vaginal products and brought about condition away from mating plugs, its useful morphology, plus in video clips facts on the mating decisions off a closely associated kinds ( Secondary Clips S1 ), we advise that creating out of mating plug occurs in 5 hypothetical tips ( Figures step three and 4):

After immobilizing the female human anatomy, a man inserts his metasomal sternum S-VIII underneath the women tergum T-VI, training they ( Contour 4C).

Due to the fact ladies genital chamber try established ( Profile 3A), a man gonostyli touches the newest female’s genital part. Immediately after positioning the fresh new sternum S-VIII, a man metasomal sternum S-IX protrudes outside of the male’s human body into the new woman’s genital chamber along with the vaginal capsule, because of the an excellent telescopic path ( Profile 3F). The newest installation out of male genital capsule toward people genital chamber is not followed closely by new gonostyli, and that circulate backward in the techniques, kept away from women vaginal chamber ( Profile 3G).

May 24, 2022

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