Ladies genitalia away from M. fasciculata and steps to possess mating plug coupling. (A) Virgin ladies genitalia from inside the front examine. (B) Men genitalia of pre-copula male, dealing with the female genitalia. (C–E) Genital capsule, metasomal sterna S-VIII and S-IX. (F) Men genitalia performing the fresh coupling of your own plug: ventral look at vaginal pill and you may besthookupwebsites.org local hookup Columbia MO metasomal sternum S-IX projecting out of the system of your men because of the an effective telescopic movement. (G) Men genital supplement isolated of male’s system, which have knob regulators triggered, gonostyli facing the alternative status about the first. (H) Metasomal sterna S-VIII and you can S-IX, in which sternum S-IX assumes on the totally new standing in male’s gut. (I) Mating plug in detail, appearing the latest lateral compression out-of gonocoxites. (J) New genital chamber off good connected girls: the new membranous area containing the latest mating connect connected.
In the low-Melipona varieties (F
longipes, S. aff. Postica, and you can P. minima), i observed strong penis valves having intermediary curvature and you can a lower spatha ( Figure step one)paring all round morphology away from manhood valves and you will spatha off M. fasciculata to another examined varieties, i discovered that both Meters. flavolineata and you may M. seminigra has actually narrow dick valves having lowest curvature. However, M. seminigra have faster regulators than just M. flavolineata, and you may a well-established spatha when comparing to additional Melipona ( Contour step 1).
Dysfunction away from hypothesized plugging actions
The final position away from mating plugs in to the mated female coordinated the new position of your male’s gut during copulation on account of “J” course and you may positioning below woman’s gut ( Shape 4C). Throughout physogastric queens regarding Yards. fasciculata, we observed the new mating connect attached to the membranous genital pouches because of the manhood regulators, towards spatha skin mainly based toward the feminine ventral section, placed under the new gonopore ( Figure 3J). I suggest that this new mating plug system was brought about in the event the male vaginal medicine are irreversibly protruded off male’s human body, which leads to changed positions of the gonostyli, knob regulators, and you will gonocoxites.
The mating pair of M. fasciculata, according to a video clip number regarding mating regarding a related types. Throughout: (A) men in flight, trying to status in itself across the female; (B) positioned men, appearing pairs out-of foot suitable along side female’s body; (C) male raising the instinct of the women; (D) male leaving the female after winning mating, that is, the fresh mating plug connection. In most parts, male wings are portrayed so you’re able to depict their way throughout mating, based on Supplementary Movies S1 .
This new mating collection of Yards. fasciculata, according to a video clip record off mating of a related species. All the way through: (A) men in flight, looking to status in itself over the ladies; (B) organized male, indicating sets out-of foot installing across the female’s human body; (C) men improving the abdomen of one’s female; (D) men making the female immediately after effective mating, which is, the latest mating connect accessory. In most parts, men wings was portrayed so you’re able to depict their course while in the mating, centered on Additional Video clips S1 .
According to research by the comparison anywhere between sleeping state out of vaginal products and you will caused state out of mating plugs, its practical morphology, and also in films suggestions into the mating behavior out-of a directly associated species ( Secondary Video clips S1 ), i advise that triggering from mating connect occurs in 5 hypothetical tips ( Figures step three and 4):
After immobilizing the female human body, the male inserts his metasomal sternum S-VIII underneath the women tergum T-VI, training they ( Contour 4C).
Since the lady genital chamber are established ( Shape 3A), a man gonostyli touches the latest woman’s genital region. Shortly after location the newest sternum S-VIII, the male metasomal sternum S-IX protrudes out from the male’s looks to the this new woman’s genital chamber plus the vaginal product, from the a beneficial telescopic path ( Profile 3F). The latest insertion away from male genital product for the women genital chamber isn’t followed by the latest gonostyli, and that flow backward into the processes, remaining outside the ladies vaginal chamber ( Figure 3G).